Survey and investigation of migration of monomers in toy materials

The production of plastic leave behind residual monomers, some of which are classified as hazardous substances. Especially monomers with genotoxic carcinogenic properties are unwanted in plastic materials used in toys. With this report, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency wishes to gain further knowledge on the migration of such monomers and an assessment on their potential health risk.

Kortlægning af kemiske stoffer i forbrugerprodukter No. 174, 2019

After the preliminary survey, 29 different toy materials and products were selected for content analysis of one or more of four monomers (vinyl chloride, butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene). The following materials were investigated: ABS, PVC, PS, SEBS and SBC. The content of vinyl chloride in PVC and styrene in SEBS as well as of butadiene and styrene in SBC was below the detection limit or detected at low levels. For ABS, residual monomers were identified in all products with an average of 26.7 mg/kg for Exposure and risk assessment were performed with the assumption that the monomers migrate at a rate identical to the detection limit. The risk assessment showed that there is no risk related to playing with the toys containing vinyl chloride, butadiene or styrene. For acrylonitrile, the detection limit is not low enough to comment on any possible riskacrylonitrile, 0.57 mg/kg for butadiene and 842 mg/kg for styrene. The styrene content in PS was on average 351 mg/kg. Migration analyses conducted under different conditions on two products of ABS and two of PS showed no migration above the detection limit.

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